Collaboration in Action

What does a collaborative learning team look like?

Ashley Kehoe, an instructional designer in ITS, gives a first-hand account as a member of the Dartmouth Vietnam Project — a student-driven experiential learning program.

Read Ashley’s guest post, “Collaboration in Action,” on Inside Higher Ed’s Technology and Learning column. Josh Kim, director of digital learning initiatives at DCAL, is a frequent contributor to the column and had asked Ashley to write a guest post on the subject.

IT Services Headshots at Dartmouth College. Copyright 2014 Rob Strong

Ashley Kehoe, Instructional Designer, (Photo: Copyright 2014 Rob Strong)

The Vietnam Oral History Project team, including undergraduate student researchers, faculty from The Department of History, librarians/archivists, an instructional designer, a digital media specialist, a guest lecturer/oral history expert, and a local Army veteran. (Photo: Susan Simon)

The Vietnam Oral History Project team, including undergraduate student researchers, faculty from The Department of History, librarians/archivists, an instructional designer, a digital media specialist, a guest lecturer/oral history expert, and a local Army veteran. (Photo: Susan Simon)





A Return Trip to Holland is Different with a Tablet

By Elizabeth Kelsey, Editor of Interface

This column originally appeared in The Valley News on Sunday, October 19, 2014


When I returned to Holland after a 10-year absence, I realized how much technology complemented my connections with people.

I traveled to the Netherlands for vacation in July. I once lived there, and the trip was my first time back in 10 years.

As I boarded the plane to Amsterdam, I thought of how much I had changed since I last made this journey as a vagabond grad student. But another type of transformation dawned on me in flight as I binge-watched episodes of Girls on my iPad: Technology would make this trip different.

When I last lived in Holland, Gmail was Google’s newborn infant and the iPhone was probably a mere napkin sketch on Steve Jobs’ coffee table. Still, on this trip, I wasn’t keen on using any of the advances that have come since those days. Why fly all the way to Amsterdam to look down on a retina display and not up at the city’s gables?

I limited Internet use to the evenings, when I contacted my husband Maroun on FaceTime to say good-night (good afternoon, for him, in New Hampshire). In the U.S., I’d used the service to chat with out-of-state family, but I always reverted back to regular phone calls. But intercontinental use proved a revelation as I connected with my husband from my cousins’ home in the village of Wassenaar.

Maroun had never met the Dutch side of my family, and I introduced them all one evening as my cousins and I mingled in the kitchen after dinner. My husband laughed when he noticed that the television in the background was tuned to the World Cup semifinal, the orange-clad national team darting across our screen and his. And he was surprised at how light it still was at 10 p.m. in the Netherlands, something that struck me too the first time I visited there. On his end, our cat Stella, hearing my voice, approached his iPod. She butted up against the device and I could hear her purr.

After I said goodnight to my husband and cat, I signed on to Facebook briefly, just to reassure myself that my community back in New England hadn’t changed in the three days since I’d left. Indeed, judging from their photos, friends still went to farmers markets, baked pies and took vacations. Even the Fourth of July was celebrated without me.

One afternoon I visited a couple of friends in The Hague. Over wine and apple tart, I described my home in America. The mountains I had hiked. The college where I worked.

“Show us,” they said, and handed me an iPad.

On Google Maps I hovered over New Hampshire.

“It’s all forest!” they said.

I zoomed in closer, to my office building, to the track where my running club trains, to my house, where my husband’s car was parked in the drive. I felt an unexpected pang of homesickness as a Dutch drizzle tapped against the windowpane.

But I would be going home soon enough. In the meantime, I had another social call. And unlike my serendipitous brushes with FaceTime and Google Maps, this was one technological encounter I had planned for.

My grandmother, who died over 30 years ago, had preserved several photo albums from her youth, which chronicled her time with our European family. In the years preceding World War II, she and her Dutch first cousin, Betty, took turns visiting each other, either at my grandmother’s childhood home in Trumbull, Conn., or in Wassenaar, where Betty, 91, still lives.

Before I left for my trip, my father scanned hundreds of my grandmother’s photos and placed them in a shared DropBox folder on the Web. On one of my last evenings in Holland, Betty, her son and I sat in her library, huddled around my iPad. As I uploaded photos, it crossed my mind that we looked like a multigenerational Apple ad. The images displayed beautifully: vibrant, even in black and white. Betty’s eyesight was poor, but I enlarged photos with my fingertips on the screen.


I show family photos to Betty on the iPad.

We scrolled through photographs of my grandmother. My great grandmother. A great aunt. A neighbor, once forgotten, but now remembered. Like a magician, I conjured the past with a wave of my hand. Cousin Betty marveled at photos of herself she had never seen; at images, too, of those long dead, now resurrected.


My grandmother, left, with her cousin Betty, circa 1930

“Mijn schat (my dear),” she said, resting her hand on the tablet. “How did you fit so many pictures into one book?”

Later, on FaceTime, I recapped the evening for my husband.

“She really liked the albums,” I said.

At that point, my cat approached at the sound of my voice. I called Stella’s name and she purred back. Instinctively, I reached out to pet her, but my fingertips fell against a hard flat screen. It wasn’t time for that kind of iPod touch. But maybe it would happen. In another 10 years.

Student Voices: eTextbooks on the Horizon

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Stacy Lee ’17

By Stacy Lee ’17

Writing for the exchange of thought, information, and knowledge has over 6000 years of history: Various characters and texts had been carved into mud bricks and animal bones and carried onto papyrus, then paper. And with the invention of printing, a myriad of published human thought became available to everyone. Now, the eBook has joined the list and is on its way to topping paper books in usage.

EBooks—digitized reading materials that can be downloaded to computers and portable devices—eliminate certain disadvantages of paper books. EBooks may be saving trees and also that trip around the block to the nearest bookstore, but what exactly may we be losing in exchange?

Looking around our own campus, not many classes are taught with eBooks, nor are many students aware that the exact textbooks they’re using in class are actually available to them in digital form. I have some avid-reader friends who claim to have “converted” to Kindles or Nooks—not for academic purposes, but for their own leisure reading. I myself am a Nook-convert because I’m attracted to its portability. My reading habits quickly diminished in college, since so much of my life began to take place outside my room. But the Nook’s portability was the right fix: I found it so much more convenient to have on hand when I arrived to class ten minutes too early, for example. It was easier to bring with me to the gym, as well, since I didn’t have to hold down the corners of a book while spinning on the elliptical. And the text-size control was just one more benefit to the bundle.

But apart from personal reading, I want to examine the plausibility of eBooks’ prevalence over textbooks in the Dartmouth classroom. The first advantage is convenience. The first week of a Dartmouth quarter always involves a hustle for grabbing books at Wheelock Books before everyone else in your class. If, by chance, Wheelock runs out of the required texts—which, most of the time, it does—you are stuck on the wait-list or paying shipping fees for used books of unknown quality, while the profs carry on with the material regardless. With eBooks, though, you can  easily buy a textbook anywhere within minutes. You can create a virtual library of 3000 to 4000 books without killing a single tree; you can even lend books in your virtual library to others. No more frustration in trying to sell old editions of a textbook for a fraction of its price.

With eBooks, buying textbooks could become much more affordable since many books that cost over a hundred dollars are $14.99 and under in Apple’s iBooks application. The pay-per-chapter and pay-per-page models allow professors to select excerpts from various materials to address their course topic. I believe this feature is especially useful in humanities classes, where exposure to many different texts are vital to a well-rounded, unbiased understanding of topics.

For all those students who aspire to be authors, eBooks present a faster path to publication by eliminating the publishing company. Writers can decide to only publish their work digitally and with comparably little cost. Software such as Kindle Direct Publish and iBooks Author allow new authors to debut their work relatively easily.

Although the benefits of eBooks keep growing, there are aspects of paper books that aren’t yet flawlessly emulated in digital form. There is a certain appeal to holding a tangible paper book in one’s hand that sometimes affects how one feels about the content of the book. Like all things outmoded by technology, paper books carry a particular charm that black and white e-Ink readers cannot imitate. The colorful covers, the feel of the paper, and the ability to highlight text and write in the margins are all part of the experience. I know an eBook definitely could not have replaced my art history course textbook from last term, which had big, colored pictures of paintings at every turn of the page.

Still, the advantages of eBooks outweigh their shortcomings. In no way does a paper book’s analog beauty compare to the cost they do to the environment. With more than seven hundred million eBooks being sold on iTunes U alone, it seems only a matter of time before digital texts make their way into university classrooms. As more and more analogue books become outmoded in the future, I am probably still going to miss sitting in a corner, carefully turning pages so as not to bend the spines of novels amid the smell of paper. More so, receiving a textbook from an upperclassmen and finding highlighted, scribbled remnants of their previous work would also become a melancholic thing of the past.

Editor’s note: The verdict is still out on whether eBooks are environmentally superior to their paper counterparts. Several factors must be taken into consideration, such as the materials used to construct an eBook, whether a paper book is purchased locally or shipped, and even what time of day you read your eBook or paper book. One 2010 study by The New York Times concludes: “With respect to fossil fuels, water use and mineral consumption, the impact of one e-reader payback equals roughly 40 to 50 books. When it comes to global warming, though, it’s 100 books; with human health consequences, it’s somewhere in between.”

Read more:

Should I stop buying paper books and use an e-reader instead? The Guardian, January 2013

Five Reasons why eBooks Aren’t There Yet Wired, June 2011

Are e-readers greener than books? The New York Times, August 2009



Want to stay safe online? Go green!

When you visit a Dartmouth website that requires your Dartmouth username and password, you should look for a GREEN URL. If it’s NOT Dartmouth green, don’t proceed.

Any Dartmouth website that requests login info should have the GREEN bar. This  includes sites protected by WebAuth ( such as Banner, Canvas, Kronos, and Library Services) and Blitz Web, Calendar, and OneDrive.

We’ve recently added these green extended digital certificates to our websites to help you avoid being phished.

Here’s a glimpse at how the extended digital certificates appear in different browsers:




Internet Explorer





October: National Cyber Security Awareness Month

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Elizabeth Kelsey

With the start of a new term, security engineer Adam Goldstein sees students attempting to download free eBooks to avoid paying for textbooks. But the texts come with a hidden cost: “These books have malware Trojans,” Goldstein says. “By downloading them, students introduce harmful software that can delete files and steal data.” In addition, Goldstein has noted a significant uptick in copyright violations online—also fairly routine for this time of the year. “We caution students not to illegally download material because they’re subjecting themselves to lawsuits from media companies,” he says.

Ebook malware and copyright violations are just two of many security issues Dartmouth’s Cyber Security Team confronts on a daily basis, which is why the College is taking part in National Cyber Security Awareness Month. The U.S. Federal Government designated October as a time to reach out to the general community about various safeguards to protect privacy and personal data.

“It’s important for everyone to do what they can to protect themselves, and we hope to help them by giving them some tips on ways to conduct themselves online safely,” says Chief Information Security Officer Steve Nyman. According to Nyman, one of the most common threats at Dartmouth is phishing, a type of attack in which users receive an email link to a legitimate-looking site, click on the link, and enter sensitive information into a malicious website.


Steve Nyman, Chief Information Security Officer

“No one is immune from it,” Nyman says. “Bad guys and spammers are out to take advantage of any resource and any information they can get their hands on. People find phishing emails popping up in their mailboxes and they need to be aware and delete those messages.”

Staying safe online is important at an institutional level, as well. Nyman and his team protect Dartmouth’s broader IT infrastructure to prevent economic espionage and attempts to steal university research.

“We had a system that was developed and maintained by a graduate student and a faculty member, which was not adequately designed and therefore was subjected to a routine type of attack,” Nyman says. If the College’s IT professionals had managed the system, the breach would have been easily prevented. Nyman: “Individuals who are going to set up systems need to reach out and get professional IT assistance in making sure those systems are secure.”

Cyber criminals also target higher-ed resources, such as library subscription services. According to Nyman, hackers have already infiltrated such systems at several universities. Once inside, thieves use subscriptions without charge and violate an institution’s licensing agreement to the point where vendors threaten to shut off a university’s access. Dartmouth’s Identity and Access Management project has deployed Knowledge Based Authentication (KBA), a series of security question challenges, to thwart the use of these hijacked accounts.

ITS offers several security tips online. In the coming weeks, we’ll post more information about cyber security attacks and how to combat them. In the meantime, Nyman says: “Be careful what you click on.”

See also, in Dartmouth Now:

Network Security:  ‘The Barriers to Entry Are Very Low,’ July 2014, by Joseph Blumberg

Dartmouth Researcher Tackles Ubiquitous Internet Insecurity, March 5, 2014, by Joseph Blumberg

Defending Dartmouth Against Cyber Crime, Nov. 12, 2013, by Joseph Blumberg

Dartmouth-Led Team Receives NSF Health Care Cybersecurity Grant, August 2013, by Joseph Blumberg

Dartmouth Conference Features Experts on Cybersecurity, July 11, 2013, by Keith Chapman






Connecting through First-year Trips

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Dartmouth Outing Club First-Year Trips gather in front of Robinson Hall. (Photo: Eli Burakian ’00)

Elizabeth Kelsey

Earlier this month, the Dartmouth Outing Club wrapped up its First-year Trips prior to the start of the academic term.

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Trippees experience their first visit to Moosilauke. (Photo: Eli Burakian ’00)

The excursions, a tradition dating back to 1935, welcome new Dartmouth students by taking them on adventures in the wilderness that surrounds the College. “Trippees” choose from different journeys that include hiking, canoeing, and horseback riding. All trips last five days and conclude with a night at Moosilauke Ravine Lodge.

Although Trips are a Dartmouth tradition dating back to 1935, some things are bound to change over the years. According to the program’s Director Gerben Scherpbier ’14, he and fellow organizers take advantage of modern technology while also restricting its use.

“In order to facilitate bonding between students, we actually take all of the trippees’ cell phones on their first night and store them until they get back to campus,” Scherpbier says. “We think this helps students focus on the beautiful environment surrounding them and the other people in their group.”


Spencer Lambdin  ’18 (back row, far left) with fellow trippees during their five-day canoe trip in September 2014 (Photo: Spencer Lambdin)

Peter Skow ’18, from London, who went on a climb and hike trip says, “I didn’t miss my phone at all. Being away from it was calming.  I didn’t notice anyone in my group having a serious reaction to the disconnect, which was a pleasant surprise.”

Spencer Lambdin ’18, from New Canaan, Connecticut says he was glad devices were collected before he and his group set off in their canoes.

“In high school I went on a few mission trips with my church where they instituted the same policy,” he says. “Eliminating the distraction of a cell phone made it easier to get to know everyone on my trip and on the other trips in my section.”



“Not having our phone definitely made the outdoors experience a little more real. We were still able to have a camera if we wanted to take photos or anything like that, but being without our phones let us really enjoy the outdoors.” —Spencer Lambdin ’18 (Photo: Spencer Lambin)

Lambdin adds the absence of his cell phone made the social experience more focused:

“While anyone could be tempted to text their friends at home if we had our phones, having them taken away made us talk to each other and be fully present in each conversation and interaction we had. At the same time, not having our phones definitely made the outdoors experience a little more real. [Lambin says his favorite part of the journey was jumping into the river with his mates]. We were still able to have a camera if we wanted to take photos or anything like that, but being without our phones let us really enjoy the outdoors.”

One area of DOC trips that has improved significantly, according to Scherpbier, concerns safety. Trip leaders once relied solely on satellite phones to communicate with trips in the Second College Grant but now can also use Skype or Google chat to stay in touch with these groups.

Cell providers increasingly cover trip routes, and leaders record all safety information in an online database: when an incident occurs Vox Croo (a DOC group that provides medical attention to injured or sick trips participants) can view trip updates and documents from Hanover. “If a student is allergic to bee stings for example, all of our safety personnel can view that information without having to pass out paper copies,” Scherpbier says.

One of the technology’s biggest improvements has been in logistics, says Scherpbier. While trips are underway, he uses a GPS tracking system to locate buses throughout the day, which helps leaders make sure everything is running on schedule and enables them to alert others of delays. Organizers perform all registration and pre-Trips communication through email and an online database. As recently as 2012, the DOC still relied on snail mail to get some information from incoming students. Previous directors would need to scan hundreds of pages of registration information.

“I am so thankful for that change!” Scherpbier says.

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A New Generation of Security Experts

The 2014 Institute for Security, Technology, and Society High School Summer Camp.

The 2014 Institute for Security, Technology, and Society High School Summer Camp. IT Security Engineer Adam Goldstein (top, third from left) served as lead instructor.

The ISTS High School Workshop

Elizabeth Kelsey

Hackers continue to outsmart computer systems. As governments, businesses, and institutions contend with identity thieves, one Dartmouth program strives to train more security-savvy professionals from a very early age.

This fall, 16 high school students from throughout the Northeast are returning to classrooms with a better awareness of Cyber Security— thanks to a program offered by Dartmouth’s Institute for Security, Technology, and Society (ISTS). The institute’s free High School Summer Workshop was filled to maximum attendance when it took place July 7-11, 2014.

IT Security Engineer Adam Goldstein, who served as lead instructor for the workshop, says even though significant cyber security opportunities exist in both academia and the workplace, “the new and rapidly evolving field of study is not typically covered in the high school curriculum.” Goldstein adds that even if students don’t plan to pursue a career in security, by studying the topic, they can explore a different approach to learning by asking not only  “Does this work?” but “How does this work and keep from breaking.” Such thinking is especially useful in engineering and medical fields where individuals should consider potential failure scenarios when implementing any solution or technology.

Goldstein and fellow organizers ISTS Associate Director Bill Nisen and Program Manager Karen Page designed the high school workshop’s curriculum so students understand security from a hacker’s perspective. “In doing so,” Goldstein says, “they can explore the potential risks such actions may pose and how to implement appropriate defenses.”

Lecturers covered a broad overview of cyber security and focused on emerging threats and defensive computing strategies.  Guest speakers included Dartmouth CISO Steve Nyman, who discussed “Information Security in an Enterprise Environment”; NSA Computer Scientist Christen Shepherd, who outlined cyber security opportunities in the federal government; and Dartmouth System Administrator Joe Hill, who explained digital investigations. Students lunched with Chair of Computer Science Tom Cormen to discuss university-level computer science programs. In addition to scheduled events, organizers asked students to complete outreach projects, which are due in October.

Elisabeth Dubois, a senior from Derby, Vermont plans to study digital forensics in college and eventually work for the federal government. She learned about the Security, Technology, and Society workshop from an online search.

“Cyber security is needed with all the Internet use today,” Dubois says. “I enjoyed learning about the criminal aspect of cyber security and really enjoyed meeting other people who shared my same interest.” Dubois is currently working on a poster for her local library on safe computing.

The ISTS workshop, which has grown since its inception in 2007, directly addresses the need for K-12 cyber security education programs as outlined by The White House, the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE3), the National Science Foundation through the Cyberwatch program, and other independent organizations. The Department of Defense funded programs in 2012-2014 through its information assurance scholarship program. Workshop organizers advertised the opportunity in the Valley News summer camp section, and in flyers sent to local high school science teachers, guidance counselors, and other school administrators.

See completed outreach projects from 2013 and 2012, which include a school newspaper article on cyber security and a Guide to Identifying Phishing.




The Future of Instructional Design

Instructional design is the systematic development of educational materials, workshops, tutorials, training, and curriculum to ensure quality instruction and increase student success. In the final of a three-part series on the subject, Interface looks to the future of ID at Dartmouth.

Part 3: The Future of Instructional Design

Elizabeth Kelsey

Dartmouth’s EdTech group currently has five instructional designers who help with new teaching-and-learning focused initiatives, such as DartmouthX and the gateway course redesign project, which aims to enhance individualized learning in courses that have large enrollments by necessity.

Instructional Designers work with faculty in multiple ways, according to Michael Goudzwaard, an instructional designer who joined Dartmouth’s team in October 2013. “In the Canvas LMS transition project we reach out to faculty to help with their switch from Blackboard to Canvas, which can sometimes lead to other work together on a course,” Goudzwaard says. “Each instructional designer has a primary area of focus with departmental assignments,” he adds. “This allows us to build relationships with the faculty in our departments of focus so requests also come directly by email or even in a conversation on the sidewalk.”

Ashley Kehoe is an instructional designer who joined Dartmouth’s team in November 2013. Like many who eventually pursue the field, she has a background in education and found her way into the profession by way of teaching. “I learned how important but also challenging it is to develop a curriculum that makes sense for students and accomplishes what you’re actually trying to teach,” Kehoe says. “I started focusing my professional efforts in that direction and found that instructional design is a fusion of my passions for designing meaningful, high-impact learning experiences and using technology in innovative ways.”

Kehoe is currently working with a team of faculty and librarians to develop a long-term oral history project on the Vietnam War.


The Vietnam Oral History Project team, including undergraduate student researchers, faculty from The Department of History, librarians/archivists, an instructional designer, a digital media specialist, a guest lecturer/oral history expert, and a local Army veteran. (Photo: Susan Simon)

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Local veteran Mike Heaney shares his experiences in the Vietnam War. (Photo: Susan Simon)

“The overall vision is to train students as oral historians while capturing and archiving stories from members of the Dartmouth community—alumni, faculty, staff, local community members—who remember the Vietnam War and protests on campus,” Kehoe says. “In this example, we’re working together to use the faculty’s subject matter expertise and my knowledge of experiential learning to create a high-impact learning experience for students while contributing a service to the broader community. That’s what experiential learning is all about.”

There are plenty of groundbreaking experiences in store, according to Assistant Director of Educational Technologies Barbara Knauff: “We’re about halfway through our transition to Canvas, which has turned out to be a great opportunity to connect and re-connect with our faculty around teaching and learning questions. We have a robust collaboration with DCAL (the Dartmouth Center for Advancement in Learning) and the libraries, which is growing even stronger with some of our new initiatives. More of our staff have formal degrees in ‘Instructional Design’; and all of them get fewer confused looks when they tell someone what their job title is. Most of our faculty actually know who we are and how we can partner with them to help with their course design. Instructional Design as a profession has moved into the mainstream—both nationally, and at Dartmouth.”

See also:

Part 1: A Fruitful Collaboration

Part 2: A History of Instructional Design


Instructional Design at Dartmouth: A History

Instructional design is the systematic development of educational materials, workshops, tutorials, training, and curriculum to ensure quality instruction and increase student success. In the second of a three-part series on the subject, Interface looks back on the history of ID at Dartmouth.

Part 2: A History of Instructional Design

Elizabeth Kelsey

Dartmouth’s instructional designers team up with faculty on a variety of teaching, learning, and technology projects. Instructional designers help professors develop and expand their use of Canvas, Dartmouth’s learning management system. They also collaborate with faculty on creating web-enabled learning environments by “flipping” static content, like lectures, to be accessible outside of class via online recording, so students can spend more time applying the content in class. Additionally, instructional designers recommend and implement new technology, such as lecture capture and data visualization software. They work with faculty on an individual basis, as well as in workshops and online training formats.

According to Barbara Knauff, Assistant Director of Educational Technologies, instructional design has been happening at Dartmouth—and elsewhere—for centuries.  “At its most basic, as soon as you are stepping back and thinking about what you are trying to accomplish with your teaching, and how best to do it, you are designing instruction,” she says. But Knauff adds that Instructional Design as a discipline didn’t really take off until the 90s, and has exploded in the last decade, with online learning as a major catalyst.

Students participate in a class as part of Dartmouth's Master of Health Care Delivery Science, a joint program between the Dartmouth Institute and the Tuck School of Business.

Students participate in a class as part of Dartmouth’s Master of Health Care Delivery Science, a joint program between the Dartmouth Institute and the Tuck School of Business.

Dartmouth’s Master of Healthcare Delivery Science program combines residential sessions with distance learning, and the DartmouthX initiative will launch its first online course in early 2015. But the College gravitated towards instructional technology long before these programs were established. In the 80s and 90s, Dartmouth was a leader in computing across the curriculum and in personal computing. “Many Dartmouth faculty started using technology in their own instruction, be it with projects like hyper-card-based learning modules and tools, or with web-based teaching resources, back in the early days of the Internet,” Knauff says. She cites Dartmouth’s Milton Reading Room, which with help from Academic Computing has enabled Professor of English Thomas Luxon and his students to annotate the English poet’s work online since 1997.

The first printings of Milton's Paradise Lost, from Rauner Special Collections Library. Professor of English Thomas Luxon's Milton Reading Room is a pioneering example of web-based instruction.

The first printings of Milton’s Paradise Lost, from Rauner Special Collections Library. Professor of English Thomas Luxon’s Milton Reading Room is a pioneering example of web-based instruction.

Due to growing faculty interest in technology teaching resources, Academic Computing added a branch called “Curricular Computing,” and hired and re-allocated staff to help professors. The group adopted the Blackboard learning management system (LMS) early in its production. As a result, faculty wanted to learn more about teaching with technology.

“Our roles shifted towards consulting with faculty on their teaching, and away from working on niche technology projects,” Knauff explains. Job descriptions evolved from “Curricular Computing Specialist” to “Educational Technologist” to “Instructional Designer,” with growing emphasis on pedagogical expertise.