McDermott, S. M., R. E. Irwin, and B. W. Taylor. 2013. Using economic instruments to develop effective management of invasive species: insights from a bioeconomic model. Ecological Applications 23:1086-1100. PDF

Schaeffer, R. N., J. S. Manson, and R. E. Irwin. 2013. Effects of abiotic factors and species interactions on estimates of male plant function: a meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 16:399-408. PDF

Cook, D., J. S. Manson, D. R. Gardner, K. D. Welch, and R. E. Irwin. 2013. Norditerpene alkaloid concentrations in tissues and floral rewards of larkspurs and impacts on pollinators. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 48:123-131. PDF


Brody, A. K. and R. E. Irwin. 2012. When resources don’t rescue: pollinators, nectar robbers and pre-dispersal seed predators limit compensation to herbivory in Ipomopsis aggregata. Oikos 121:1424-1434. PDF

Adler, L. S. and R. E. Irwin. 2012. Nectar alkaloids decrease pollination and reproduction in a native plant. Oecologia 168:1033-41. PDF

Irwin, R. E. 2012. The role of trait-mediated indirect interactions for multispecies plant-animal mutualisms. In Interaction Richness and Complexity: Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects of Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions, Chapter 14, pages 257-277. Edited by T. Ohgushi, O. Schmitz, and R. Holt. Cambridge University Press.


Zhang, C., R. E. Irwin, Y.Wang, Y.-P. He, Y.-P. Yang, Y.-W. Duan. 2011. Selective seed abortion in selfing plants in an alpine ecosystem induced by nectar robbing. New Phytologist 192:249-255.

Irwin, R. E. and A. K. Brody. 2011. Additive effects of herbivory, nectar robbing and seed predation on male and female fitness components of the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 166:681-692. PDF


Irwin, R. E., J. L. Bronstein, J. S. Manson, and L. Richardson. 2010. Nectar robbing: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 41:271-292. PDF

Burkle, L. A. and R. E. Irwin. 2010. Beyond biomass: measuring the effects of community-level nitrogen enrichment on floral traits, pollinator visitation and plant reproduction. Journal of Ecology 98:705-717. PDF

Wilke, B. J. and R. E. Irwin. 2010. Variation in the phenology and abundance of flowering by native and exotic plants in subalpine meadows. Biological Invasions 12: 2363-2372. PDF


Burkle, L., and R. Irwin. 2009. Plant-pollinator networks across space and time: the importance of interannual variation and bottom-up nitrogen enrichment. Oikos 118:1816-1829.

Irwin, R. E. 2009. Realized tolerance to nectar robbing: compensation to floral enemies in Ipomopsis aggregata. Annals of Botany, Special Issue on Plant-Pollinator Interactions, 103:1425-1433. PDF

Mitchell, R. J., R. E. Irwin, R. J. Flanagan, and J. D. Karron. 2009. Viewpoint: Ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator interactions. Annals of Botany, Special Issue on Plant-Pollinator Interactions, 103:1355-1363.

Burkle, L. and R. Irwin. 2009. Nectar sugar limits larval growth of solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Environmental Entomology 38:1293-1300. PDF

Burkle, L. A. and R. E. Irwin. 2009. The impact of nutrient addition on floral characters and pollination in two subalpine plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Linum lewisii. Plant Ecology 203:83-98.

Sloan, C. D., E. J. Duell, X. Shi, R. Irwin, A. S. Andrew, S. Williams, and J. H. Moore. 2009. Ecogeographic genetic epidemiology. Genetic Epidemiology 33:281-289.

Elliott, S. E. and R. E. Irwin. 2009. Effects of flowering plant density on pollinator visitation, pollen receipt, and seed production in Delphinium barbeyi. American Journal of Botany 96:912-919. PDF


Irwin, R. E., C. Galen J. J. Rabenold, R. Kaczorowski, and M. L. McCutcheon. 2008. Mechanisms of tolerance to floral larceny in two animal-pollinated wildflowers, Polemonium viscosum and Ipomopsis aggregata. Ecology 89:3093-3104. PDF

Egan, J. F. and R. E. Irwin. 2008. Evaluation of the field impact of an adventitious herbivore on an invasive plant, yellow toadflax, in Colorado, USA. Plant Ecology 199:99-114. PDF

Irwin, R. E. and L. S. Adler. 2008. Nectar secondary compounds affect self-pollen transfer: implications for female and male plant reproduction. Ecology 89:2207-2217. PDF

Elliott, S. E., R. E. Irwin, L. S. Adler, and N. M. Williams. 2008. A nectar alkaloid, gelsemine, does not affect offspring performance of a native solitary bee, Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae). Ecological Entomology 33:298-304.

Brody, A. K., R. E. Irwin, M. L. McCutcheon, and E. C. Parsons. 2008. Interactions between nectar robbers and seed predators mediated by a shared host plant, Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 155:75-84. PDF


Burkle, L. A., R. E. Irwin, and D. A. Newman. 2007. Predicting the effects of nectar robbing on plant reproduction: implications of pollen limitation and plant mating system. American Journal of Botany 94:1935-1934. PDF


McCall, A. C. and R. E. Irwin. 2006. Florivory: the intersection of pollination and herbivory. Ecology Letters 9:1351-1365. PDF

Irwin, R. E. 2006. Consequences of direct versus indirect species interactions to selection on traits: pollination and nectar robbing in Ipomopsis aggregata. American Naturalist 167:315-328. PDF

Alder, L. S. and R. E. Irwin. 2006. Comparison of pollen transfer dynamics by multiple floral visitors: experiments with pollen and fluorescent dye. Annals of Botany 97:141-150. PDF

Irwin, R. E. and L. S. Adler. 2006. Correlations among traits associated with herbivore resistance and pollination: implications for pollination and nectar robbing in a distylous plant. American Journal of Botany 93:64-72. PDF


Adler, L. S. and R. E. Irwin. 2005. Ecological costs and benefits of defenses in nectar. Ecology 86:2968-2978. PDF

Price, M. V., N. M. Waser, R. E. Irwin, D. R. Campbell, and A. K. Brody. 2005. Temporal and spatial variation in pollination of a montane herb: a seven year study. Ecology 86:2106-2116. PDF

Irwin, R. E. and S. Y. Strauss. 2005. Flower color microevolution in wild radish: evolutionary response to pollinator-mediated selection. American Naturalist 165:225-237.


Taylor, B. W. and R. E. Irwin. 2004. Linking economic activities to the distribution of exotic plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:17725-17730. PDF

Strauss, S. Y. and R. E. Irwin. 2004. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of multi-species plant-animal interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 35:435-466. PDF

Irwin, R. E., L. S. Adler, and A. A. Agrawal. 2004. The community and evolutionary ecology of nectar. Ecology 85:1477-1478. PDF

Irwin, R. E., L. S. Adler, and A. K. Brody. 2004. The dual role of floral traits: pollinator attraction and plant defense. Ecology 85:1503-1511. PDF

Strauss, S. Y., R. E. Irwin, and V. Lambrix. 2004. Optimal defense theory and flower petal color predict variation in the secondary chemistry of wild radish. Journal of Ecology 92:132-141.

Cariveau, D., R. E. Irwin, A. K. Brody, L. Garcia-Mayeya, and A. von der Ohe. 2004. Direct and indirect effects of pollinators and seed predators to selection on plant and floral traits. Oikos 104:15-26. PDF


Engel, C. E., and R. E. Irwin. 2003. Linking pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt. American Journal of Botany 90:1612-1618. PDF

Irwin, R. E., S. Y. Strauss, S. Storz, A. Emerson, and G. Guibert. 2003. The role of herbivores in the maintenance of a flower-color polymorphism in wild radish. Ecology 84:1733-1743. PDF

Irwin, R. E. 2003. Impact of nectar robbing on estimates of pollen flow: conceptual predictions and empirical outcomes. Ecology 84:485-495. PDF


Irwin, R. E., and J. E. Maloof. 2002. Variation in nectar robbing over time, space, and species. Oecologia 133:525-533. PDF

Irwin, R. E., and B. Dorsett. 2002. Volatile production by the buds and corollas of two sympatric, con-familial plants, Ipomopsis aggregata and Polemonium foliosissimum (Polemoniaceae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:565-578. PDF

Strauss, S. Y., J. A. Rudgers, J. A. Lau, and R. E. Irwin. 2002. Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:278-285. PDF


Irwin, R. E., A. K. Brody, and N. M. Waser. 2001. The impact of floral larceny on individuals, populations, and communities. Oecologia 129:161-168. PDF

Irwin, R. E. 2001. Field and allozyme studies investigating optimal mating success in two sympatric spring-ephemeral plants, Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum. Heredity 87:178-189.


Irwin, R. E., and A. K. Brody. 2000. Consequences of nectar robbing for realized male function in a hummingbird-pollinated plant. Ecology 81:2637-2643.

Irwin, R. E. 2000. Hummingbird avoidance of nectar-robbed plants: spatial location or visual cues? Oikos 91:499-506. PDF

Irwin, R. E. 2000. Morphological variation and female reproductive success in two sympatric Trillium species: evidence for phenotypic selection in Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum (Liliaceae). American Journal of Botany 87:205-214. PDF


Irwin, R. E. and A. K. Brody. 1999. Nectar-robbing bumblebees reduce the fitness of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). Ecology 80:1703-1712. PDF


Irwin, R. E. and A. K. Brody. 1998. Nectar robbing in Ipomopsis aggregata: effects on pollinator behavior and plant fitness. Oecologia 116:519-527. PDF

Jones, K. N., J. S. Reithel, and R. E. Irwin. 1998. A trade-off between the frequency and duration of bumblebee visits to flowers. Oecologia 117:161-168.

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