Attachments: Conservation

This spring a scrapbook compiled by the Dartmouth Educational Association came in for some minimal repairs. This archival volume is a bound book with numbered pages. It holds a collection of loose items that have been added to the book over time. Scrapbook compilers have not always given consideration to the long-term effects of their methods, often choosing materials they have on hand. That’s likely the case with this volume, because only one of the methods (paper clip) doesn’t alter the item. Its contents, though, are in pretty good shape. Despite its overfilled pages, the book needed little more than a spine repair. I thought I would highlight some of the attachment methods used in this volume, concerns about their use, as well as share some tips for attaching loose items to pages with an eye toward longer-term preservation of those items.

Paper Clips and Brads:


On this page, both a paper clip (the triangular silver metal piece) and a brad (the brass-colored item) have been used. Both are made of metal, which can be prone to rust over time in certain environmental conditions. (Though no rust was found here.) The brad also requires a hole in both the item and the page in which to place the flanges. Modern paper clips are available in plastic or coated metal that should not rust. Be careful of causing creases in the paper if using paper clips, and choose the proper size to accommodate the thickness of the papers.

Eyelets:


Interestingly, eyelets were used in this album. I imagine they were attached using an eyelet setter like this classic Bates Eyeleter. This method requires a hole in both the page and the item attached, similar to the brad attachment. Even without moisture to create rust, it’s possible for metal to discolor or damage the paper on a facing page as a result of friction or pressure.

Staples:

 

Some of the items were stapled onto the pages. Staples create holes in the item as well as the pages and can be hard to remove without causing damage to both. They are also made of metal and therefore can rust in a humid environment.

Adhesive: Paste or Glue


It’s hard to tell whether this card was attached with paste or glue. Adhesives are a pretty permanent method of attachment. Some pastes (as opposed to glues) are often reversible, however they can leave evidence of their use.

The items that were attached to these pages used some kind of permanent alteration to the item itself (application of adhesive or holes in the paper) except for the paper clip. When considering which attachment method to use in a similar type of album these days, here are a few other options that do not require applying glue to or piercing holes into the item, though they require glue or holes in the album page itself.

Slits and slots:  


To mount a photograph or other flat item onto a book page, make cuts in the base paper (a slit) or remove a narrow slice of paper (a slot) for thicker material. By locating these cuts diagonally at the four corners, the item can be slipped in and will stay without any adhesive.

Photo corners:


Photo corners come in a variety of styles: self-adhesive, gummed, clear, black or white paper, and they can easily be made by hand. Look for ones that pass the P.A.T. test (photo activity test) or have archival qualities, such as being made from acid-free materials. To make your own corners take a thin strip of acid-free paper (about 1/4-inch), at the center of the strip fold one side up at a 45-degree angle.


Then fold the other side up to meet and match the first side. Now you have a corner. Vary the thickness of the paper strip to change the size of the corner for larger or smaller photos. Once the corner is created, use acid-free tape or adhesive to attach to the mounting page or board. These can be used for other flat items as well as photographs.

A simple way of positioning the corners is to use the photo (or a facsimile of the photo of identical size and thickness) as a placeholder. Determine the location of the photo on the page and place a clean weight on top of it to hold in place. Next slip the four corners onto the photo. Then remove one corner, add or activate the adhesive and place back onto the photo and press down to attach to the page. Then do the same to the corner diagonally opposite the first corner. This will stabilize the photo. Continue with the remaining two corners and remove the weight when done.

Pockets & Envelopes:

Pockets or envelopes (choose ones made of acid-free materials) are a great way to add loose items to a page. They can be handmade or purchased and can be paper or clear Mylar. Mylar allows a view of the item without removing it. Use an acid-free adhesive (like glue or double-sided tape) to attach pockets and envelopes to the page.

With all these methods remember to accommodate the thickness of the items added to a bound volume by balancing the binding edge thickness with the foredge thickness to avoid the foredge splaying out and the book not closing. For just a few items this shouldn’t be a problem.

In my next post, on August 19th,  I’ll explore attachment methods more suited to a creative or book arts application.

Written by Stephanie Wolff

The Artwork of Ben Blais: New Exhibit at the Matthews-Fuller Library

artwork metastasisMetastasis by Ben Blais

Cancer. Hearing the word alone can produce powerful emotional responses. The disease starts infinitesimally small, but knowledge of its presence is capable of inspiring hope, despair, fear, triumph… a power which has always fascinated me. This series is a commentary on how cancer arises from the modest origins of the genetics/proteins of only one cell, and how this cell loses its identity to become an enemy to the host.

Cancer is a disease in which the cells of the body turn against their host. Every normal cell in the body has functions it performs for the good of the whole system, as well as rules it follows to keep it functioning healthily, which are written into the DNA code. Each cell faithfully follows this code its whole life, like a code of conduct to which it has sworn. Every attempt is made to protect this code, but it is at always at risk of being damaged, altered, or even faulty from the start. If this occurs, it begins at an unfathomably small scale: in a single, tiny cell, on average about one third the width of a human hair. This faithful cell continues to do what the broken code tells it to do and, in the process, becomes something else, committing acts of aggression and treason. It is greedy, intrusive, and forgets what it means to share. A newborn conquerer, its focus shifts to multiplication of its forces and invasion. These cells can’t be our own.

Following its Jekyll to Hyde transformation, an effort is made at containment. Natural barriers exist in the body to compartmentalize systems, with the hope that they will not be breached. Invasion beyond the contained space is known as “Metastasis”, and beyond the walls, there are roads to which the entire body may be accessed. This is territory that is our own, and these are unwelcome visitors. We don’t recognize these hands, forcing this Petri-dish-cell on us as a new responsibility.

In these images, the shape of the subject’s hands is meant to represent an organ, held over the site of cancer within the body. The human subject is presumed to be hidden behind the sterile background. The only indication of identity given is in the gesture and likeness of the hands. The cell represented on the culture dish in each drawing is recreated from research photographs taken in a cancer research lab at Vanderbilt University, with each color used representing a different cell component related to a cancer that our team at the time was investigating.

As has almost every person who sees these drawings, I have lost a friend to cancer. It happened a long time ago, in my childhood, but these drawings were an opportunity to revisit some of the feelings one may go through when their lives are affected by something so powerful. I have included his name, LANCE, on one of the plates, as I have also included important cancer researchers names on the others.

In honor of the fact that everyone has been touched in some way by this disease, an arm in each drawing has a single “mole”, a physical reminder that nearly everyone carries on their body of the potential of chaos. With every person who is forced to endure this chaos, our knowledge grows, our treatments improve, and support networks evolve. People have an incredible ability to adapt to and endure things they should never have to experience. I am hopeful the word “cancer” won’t always hold so much power.

Ben Blais – Artist Bio

I am a fourth year medical student at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. I grew up in the Lakes region of New Hampshire, and spent the more recent part of my life in the small town of Eliot, Maine. In 2010, I graduated from Vanderbilt University with a combined degree in Studio Art and Cell and Molecular Biology, and have often found myself combining these two interests.

I’ve always been fascinated by realism and trompe l’oeil styles, with my preferred media being colored pencil and graphite. My art career has so far included a solo exhibition at Berwick Academy in Maine, and two combined exhibitions, one at AVA Art Gallery in Lebanon, NH, and another at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN. I have also done a number of private commission works.

A few of my greatest influences include M.C. Escher, since I have a similarly mathematical approach to the technical aspects of drawing, and a fascination with surprising the viewer with new perspectives, Anthony Waichulis, for his process and mastery of realism, and Norman Rockwell, for his ability to recreate people’s expressions and familiar moments in a way that has always made me smile. Of course, I cannot ignore the fact that medical school has given me a strong appreciation for Dr. Frank Netter as well.

I am interested in pursuing a career in pediatrics or combined medicine and pediatrics, and I am looking forward to continuing to draw.

Thank you for enjoying my work!

Kauffer Illustrates T.S. Eliot’s Ariel Poems

Between 1927 and 1931, the publishing firm Faber and Gwyer issued a series of illustrated poems called the Ariel Poems, named after Shakespeare’s sprite. Several prominent English writers contributed to the series including T.S. Eliot, W. B. Yeats, Thomas Hardy, G. K. Chesterton, D. H. Lawrence, Siegfried Sassoon, Vita Sackville-West, and Edith Sitwell. Each pamphlet had more or less the same simple format: a black and white artist print on the cover and a colored print inside followed by a poem.

What is most striking about these deceptively simple pamphlets is the role the illustrations play to complement and vastly enrich the poetry. Edward McKnight Kauffer, one of England’s most prolific and influential advertising poster artists during the 1920s and 30s, illustrated five of the poems T.S. Eliot wrote for the Ariel series. These poems were “The Journey of the Magi” (1927), “A Song for Simeon” (1928), “Marina” (1930), “Triumphal March” (1931), and later when the series was revived in the 1950s, “The Cultivation of Christmas Trees” (1954).

Kauffer was renowned for his avant-garde graphic design and poster art for companies such as London Underground Railways (1915–40), Shell UK Ltd., the Daily Herald and British Petroleum (1934–6). His work incorporated techniques and aesthetics from numerous modernist movements including cubism, futurism, and surrealism. These influences are evident in his illustrations for T.S. Eliot’s Ariel Poems with their whimsical play with geometric form and abstraction.
To see Kauffer’s illustrations of T.S. Eliot’s poems, ask for Val 817 E42 X3, Val 817 E42 W7, Val 817 E42 S2, Val 817 E42 P451, and Rare Book PS 3509.L43 M3 1930.

Leading Chemical Societies Launch Open Access Journals

RSC_LOGO_CMYK_FINAL RSCChemicalScience.jnlTwo interesting developments from the two most influential scholarly societies for chemical researchers, the American Chemical Society (ACS) and its British counterpart, the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC).

The RSC announced yesterday that one of its newest publications, Chemical Science (launched in 2010), will move to what’s known as ‘gold’ open access – a fully open journal, free for readers without a subscription.   With the publication of the first issue in 2015, all content published from that issue forward will be freely available.  In addition, for two years, the RSC will waive all Article Processing Charges (APCs), so publishing in Chemical Science will be free for authors too.

Alert viewers will recall that, several months ago, the ACS announced several major open access initiatives (‘ACS Announces Moves to Expand Open Access,’ November 7, 2013) including the launch of a new, fully open ‘gold’ OA journal, to be called ACS Central Science.

OA-centralscienceThough ACS has not opted to waive APC charges, it has created a system of credits for authors publishing in ACS journals that can translate into OA publication in ACS Central Science or any other ACS journal (the corresponding RSC program is called “Gold for Gold” – a voucher system offering vouchers to RSC authors who (and here’s the kicker) are affiliated with institutions subscribing to the premium, aptly-named “Gold,” subscription package (also known as a ‘big deal’ – a bundle of journal subscriptions for a package price that (it turns out) is highly variable among institutions – ‘On the Cost of Journal Bundles,’ June 17, 2014).

Two models, both free of subscription barriers to readers, with somewhat different funding mechanisms and administrative back-ends, and clearly an unspoken (but unmistakeable) scramble to claim the title “first in chemistry open access publishing.”   Not a bad place to be!

BTW Dartmouth authors should recall that COPE funding is available to pay author fees for publication in ANY gold (fully open access) journal.

 


Filed under: Chemistry, Publishing

Library Teaching Quarterly: SU14

Keeping you up to date with Library teaching and outreach activities.

Evidence-Based Medicine Training for Medical Residents

DHMC residents
Image courtesy of DHMC

Every July new residents begin their medical training at academic medical centers across the country. The list of mandated competencies for residents to master includes information management and searching skills. Librarians from the Biomedical Libraries teach residents at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center how to identify appropriate information resources for looking up diseases and conditions, as well as how to effectively search and critically appraise the journal literature for the best evidence to support clinical decisions. Librarians participate in residents’ journal clubs, teach workshops and present at grand rounds, and go on patient rounds with teams of attending physicians, residents, and medical students. Working with librarians at the “point of care” provides residents with meaningful teaching opportunities necessary for lifelong learning in medicine.

Open Access icon
Image courtesy of Open Access Week

Faculty and Librarians Explore Open Access

Ellen Finnie Duranceau, of MIT’s Office of Scholarly Publishing, Copyright & Licensing, is working with us this summer on ways to enhance our teaching and outreach about scholarly communication issues such as open access policies and authors’ rights.  Ellen is facilitating a workshop for library liaisons on ways to apply deep knowledge of faculty publishing in both formal and informal teaching environments.  Ellen also is offering a workshop on “Your Rights to Your Published Works” for 35 Dartmouth community members. This workshop addresses a question that impacts the ways teaching and research materials can be shared:  “Can I post my publications in full text on… my web site, my departmental website, the institutional web site, my course site, sharing sites such as Mendeley and Academia.org, etc.? ”  Participants will discover that the answer involves understanding publishing contracts, publisher policies regarding access to the works, and public access to scholarly and scientific research required by funding organizations.  If you would like a customized version of this workshop for your department or research group, please contact Barbara DeFelice.

Tuck Bridge Program

Tuck School of Business
Image courtesy of the Tuck Bridge Program

The Tuck Business Bridge Program is an intensive, fast-track summer program. Over a four-week period, students study all the major MBA subject areas, from Financial Accounting and Corporate Finance, to Leadership, Strategy and Business Ethics. The program culminates with a massive corporate valuation project.  Feldberg librarians have been helping Bridge students navigate the myriad business databases  essential to this project every year for the past eighteen years. The librarians look forward to working with these enthusiastic students year after year.

The Tuck Business Bridge Program runs two sessions over the summer:  June 9 – July 3 and July 14 – August 8. Additionally, this year for the first time, they will run a  3-week session in winter: December 1-19, 2014.

Baker Tower
Contributors: Cynthia Stewart (Evidence-Based Medicine), Barbara DeFelice (Open Access), and Richard Felver (Tuck Bridge Program).
Editors: Sarah Tischer Scully and Laura Barrett

Fleas

Yesterday we were giving a presentation to The Dartmouth Institute's Health Professions Educators' Summer Symposium on various plagues that are nicely documented here in Rauner. It was a room filled with death and despair: one section was devoted to a small pox outbreak that hit Hanover in 1777, another to the cholera pandemic of the 1830s, and another on the bubonic plague that devastated London in 1665. The London plague (alluded to in an earlier post) brings to mind Monty Python, of course, but also fleas. And fleas reminded us of one of our favorite books, Robert Hooke's Micrographia (London: J. Martyn and J. Allestry, 1665).

Micrographia was the first detailed account of life under a microscope. Hooke's meticulous descriptions and illustrations revealed a wondrous new world to behold. But it was the irony of the publication date that was a wonder yesterday. The book came out in September of 1665, right when London was in the throes of the Plague. Little did the original readers know that the marvelously illustrated creature made so utterly foreign by the microscope was the source of all of their current sufferings.

To see Micrographia, ask for Rare QH271.H79.

Kresge Library Turns 40!

Looking Back ...

Looking Back …

KRESGE LIBRARY…THE FIRST FORTY YEARS

Next time you’re in Kresge, take a look at our latest exhibit chronicling our forty years in Fairchild. Highlights include the many physical changes throughout our history, and even evidence of our own little brush with nature in the form of a flood in our stacks. And at the tender age of forty, we believe we deserve cake, so look for an announcement in the fall and come join us!

Photo exhibit curated by Lisa Ladd, Kresge Physical Sciences Library, and Tracy Snow, Rauner Special Collections Library.


Filed under: Kresge

Shrouded in Mystery

Maria Magdalena, Duchess of Tuscany, was born into the Hapsburg family. The daughter of Archduke Charles the II and niece to Maximilian II, she married well. Her husband was Cosimo II de Medici. Her Book of Hours, perhaps originally prepared as a wedding gift, became for her a kind of album of miniature art and relics. The book is filled with miniatures she received as gifts from other royal families in Europe.

But what makes this so special is an extraordinary bit of cloth lovingly embroidered onto folio 172. On the back it is described in Latin, translated, "The Holy Cloth saved in Turin, in which was bound the body of Jesus Christ, as an example of its holy contact with the same, having been a gift to the most serene Mary, given by Fernando, Duke of Mantua." What this really is, we don't know. Likely it is a piece of cloth, painted with blood to look like the complete Shroud of Turin in miniature. But, could the cloth actually be a bit of the Shroud--a relic taken from it, then painted to represent the whole? Almost surely not, but the information on the back is inconclusive and these were the people with the connections, wealth and power to secure relics. That Maria treasured it as a relic is unquestionable.  Either way, it is an amazing bit of mystery.

To see it, ask for Codex MS 608940.

Maid’s Night Out

It was just a coincidence that lunchtime was approaching when I came upon a 1936 menu from the Hanover Inn within a box of documents on my desk. So, I was already thinking about food, but the thing about menus is that they also can shed light on cultural, economic and historic events. The menu, for example, certainly leads me to assume that in 1936 there were many Hanover households with maids, maids who either did the cooking or the cleaning up, or both, and who apparently all took Thursday nights off. I don't know what the maids were up to on Thursday night, but the Inn provided Maid's Night Out Specials for dinner, and, later, dancing on the porch. (Your investigative blogger can tell you that the special 85¢ lobster salad dinner in 1936 would be difficult to replace at a similar location today for less that 30 times the cost.)

Rauner has any number of menus, many of them documenting meals at local restaurants, College dining halls, fraternity banquets and campus events. Somewhat less regional is the Christmas banquet menu from the Ziegler Polar Expedition, 1903-1905. The expedition left Norway in the summer of 1903, landing at the base camp in Franz Josef Land left from a previous Ziegler expedition. They then established an advance camp for their run (actually two unsuccessful runs) to the North Pole, Camp Abruzzi, several miles further north. By the time Christmas rolled around, their ship had been crushed in the ice; by January all traces of it would be gone. I wonder if the men would have been chowing down heartily on New York style chicken croquettes had they had known that neither a resupply nor a relief ship would reach them for another year and a half.


On a more cheerful note, especially for chocolate fans, there's the Tarif des Consommations from the Nestlé pavilion at the1937 International Exposition in Paris.


Chocolat au lait à la crème d'amandes, anyone?