Reframing History: "Did not the man span centuries of human progress!"

From the plantations of the south to the public school system of the nation’s capital, Winfield Scott Montgomery’s journey represents African Americans’ fight for equality throughout the history of the United States.

Born a slave in 1853, Montgomery overcame his circumstances when he discovered a Vermont regiment of the Union Army stationed not far from his home in New Orleans. The presence of the northern soldiers gave him hope, and a ten-year-old Montgomery fled from the world of the whip to one of rifles. He traveled with the troops to Virginia, Vermont and Shenandoah. When Colonel Henry F. Dutton was wounded at the battle of Winchester and sent home to Vermont he brought Montgomery along with him and incorporated the young follower into his New England family.

After completing his elementary education, Montgomery attended the prestigious college preparatory school Leland and Gray Seminary in Townshend, Vermont. Then in 1873 he enrolled at the Big Green. Montgomery had to suspend his studies for a year due to financial difficulties, though he soon returned and graduated in 1878. While at Dartmouth he was a member of various student organizations including Phi Beta Kappa. As if his resume wasn’t impressive enough at this point, Montgomery went on to study medicine at Howard University, receiving his degree in 1890.

Despite his medical degree, Montgomery pursued a career in education. He taught in Vermont, Washington, D.C. and at Alcorn University in Mississippi. Additionally, he held numerous administrative positions within the Washington D.C. public school system. He rose from Principal to Supervising Principal and eventually became Assistant Superintendent in Charge of Colored Schools before retiring in 1924 after 42 years of service.

Montgomery fought to provide educational opportunities to black students that equaled those enjoyed by white students. The Board of Education opened Washington High School for Colored Youth, or the M Street High School, in the 1870’s. Throughout his career in D.C. Montgomery worked to ensure black students were prepared for secondary education by standardizing the instruction teachers offered students at the elementary level. He also elevated the curriculum at M Street to transform the school into an accredited institution. Not stopping there, Montgomery promoted the development of night schools, vacation schools, and fresh air schools, as well as catered classes to fit the needs of handicapped or special-needs students.

It is not surprising that Dartmouth granted Montgomery an honorary degree of Master of Arts in 1906 when his son, Wilder P. Montgomery, graduated from his alma mater. A pioneer in black education and equal rights in general, Montgomery endeavored to open opportunities for future generations through education. Winfield Scott Montgomery passed away on November 1928. He was 75. His obituary states: “did not the man span centuries of human progress!”

Ask for Montgomery’s Alumni File, class of 1878.

Posted for Haley Shaw ’15.

Preservation Week: Digital Storage

During Preservation Week libraries all over the country present events, activities, and resources that highlight what we can do, individually and together, to preserve our personal and shared collections.
Preservation Tip:
Keep those digital treasures safe! Schedule automatic backups through your operating system. Back them up using an external hard drive or Internet storage! Avoid-long term storage on CDs, DVDs, and flash drives.
For more information check out the Library of Congress at

Preservation Week: Archival Storage for Photographs

During Preservation Week libraries all over the country present events, activities, and resources that highlight what we can do, individually and together, to preserve our personal and shared collections.

Preservation Tip:
In today’s world of digital and traditional photography, thorough knowledge of the preservation options for the format you use is helpful. For paper-based materials write relevant caption and date information in pencil on the back of the print photograph. For digital photographs, add this information (metadata) in the space provided for it in your software program, and consider naming images with meaningful and specific file names. Choose archival storage means for both, whether acid-free albums or boxes for one or a digital back-up system for the other.
For more information check out the Library of Congress at
Preservation Week Events:
Free webinar will be offered during this week: Registration is required. To register and learn more go to ALCTS Events <>. The webinar will begin at 1 p.m. CDT and will last about one hour.
Tuesday, April 29th – Low-Cost Ways to Preserve Family Archives
Presented by Karen E. K. Brown, preservation librarian for the University at Albany, SUNY University Libraries. What can we do to protect our collectables from damage even if we don’t think we have a perfect place to keep them? Learn about possible risks from handling and the environment, and practical, inexpensive ideas to keep collections safe to help ensure what you have can be shared for many years to come. ALCTS thanks Archival Products <> for sponsoring this webinar and supporting Preservation Week.

Preservation Week: Storing Papers + Open House Today

During Preservation Week libraries all over the country present events, activities, and resources that highlight what we can do, individually and together, to preserve our personal and shared collections.
Preservation Tip:
Store your paper materials in an environment with relatively low humidity, away from direct sunlight, and on shelves not on the floor.  Whether you have books, maps, letters or other items made primarily of paper, a good environment will contribute a lot to their future condition.
For more information check out the National Archives website

Digitization for Access and Preservation
Baker Room 02

Dartmouth College Library Digital Program: Digitization for Access and Preservation 

Visit the Digital Production Unit at Baker Library to learn how the Library’s Digital Program provides access and preservation to the Library’s collections.  An open house showcasing conservation, digitization, and digital preservation will be held on Monday, April 28, from 11 am until 1 pm in Baker Library, Room 2 (east end of the Orozco Corridor).  

Saints’ Days

This weekend’s canonization ceremonies in Rome are a timely reminder of all of the amazing depictions of saints in our collection. Since Saint George’s Day was earlier this week, we thought you might appreciate this image of George taking aim at an unsuspecting two-headed dragon nibbling on some grapes. It hardly seems a fair fight in this depiction from a book of hours produced in France around 1450. The scene surrounds an image of a David in prayer that introduces the penitential psalms.

This particular book of hours has many whimsical characters inhabiting its borders that provide a kind of comic response to the piety of the texts and images they frame.

To see it yourself, ask for Codex MS 003133.

Mobile Apps for Chemistry, Physics, Biology


Image used under a CC BY-SA Creative Commons license

A round-up of sites describing useful and popular chemistry apps for mobile devices:

goldstar2Mobile Science lists a range of popular apps in chemistry and other disciplines (physics, biology, math) with brief descriptions and up- and down-votes.

goldstar2The SciMobileApps wiki has an extensive list of chemistry apps, as well as other disciplines.

goldstar2  Check out The Mobile Chemist & Chemical Engineer from Stanford’s Swain Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Library.   Arranged by category including Formulas, Structures, Reactions; Journals, Magazines, News; Structure Drawing; 3D Visualization; Calculating & Graphing  and so on.

Don’t forget Browzine!   goldstar2Licensed by the Library, Browzine delivers the most recent issue of thousands of academic journals to your iPad or Android tablet.   Select journals you follow and arrange them on a ‘bookshelf’ so they’re always at your fingertips.  Save citations and pdfs to Zotero, MendeleyDropbox and other services for offline reading.   (Follow setup instructions to configure Browzine to recognize your Dartmouth journal access.)


Further reading:

Filed under: Chemistry, Science, Tech Tips

Happy Earth Week 2014!

earthweek2014Happy Earth Week!

Enrich your knowledge with suggested readings at Kresge Library! Come check out a book on sustainability, climate change, or government policies, and explore recent theses and dissertations from the Environmental Studies Program.

The Dartmouth Sustainability Project is hosting a series of events this week. Don’t miss out!

Filed under: Earth Sciences, Kresge

"Mr. Jefferson wishes to destroy the constitution"

“Mr. Jefferson wishes to destroy the constitution of the United States.” His administration will use its control of the post offices to “disseminate falsehood, sedition and atheism” and thereby “poison the minds, and destroy the morals of the people…”

These are among the imaginative claims made in an editorial in the Connecticut Courant, which was then highlighted in the September 15, 1800, edition of the Dartmouth Gazette. Not only did Moses Davis, the publisher of the Gazette, choose to include this article in his newspaper shortly before the election of 1800, but he printed this harangue against Thomas Jefferson on the front page. Burleigh, the author of the piece, further reveals his Federalist leanings by stressing the turmoil during the time of the Confederation. He claims it was a system to which Jefferson desired to return. He also disparages Jefferson’s sympathies with France, and presents a glaring contrast between Jefferson and “the Great Man,” President Washington. In 1777, the Continental Congress created the Articles of Confederation, which the thirteen original states all ratified by 1781. The Articles intentionally did not establish a strong centralized government, and when it became apparent that this system was inadequate to govern the nation, it was replaced by that crafted under the Constitution, which was collectively ratified by 1789.

Why were Burleigh and Davis interested in publishing an article against Jefferson that seems almost ridiculous to readers today? Clearly Burleigh was determined to paint a negative picture of this Republican candidate, and he had reason to be concerned. In the election of 1800 the Republicans, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, defeated the top Federalist candidate and incumbent, John Adams, finally breaking twelve years of Federalist reign. Despite the outcome of the election, Burleigh’s piece reveals how the press had an important role in the developing political sphere of the early Republic. Without televised debates, political phone calls, or flashy bumper stickers, political deliberation often played out in writing. Newspapers were especially influential because they could make words both permanent and available to various people and communities. Davis’s decision to feature Burleigh’s article shows the political leanings of his readers—his goal was to sell newspapers after all, not merely to spread outrage.

But this election is also notable because it initially resulted in a tie, with Republicans Jefferson and Burr both receiving 73 electoral votes, and Federalists John Adams and C. C. Pinckney winning 65 and 64 electoral votes respectively. Since this was before Presidents and Vice Presidents came as a package deal as running mates, whichever candidate won the most votes would be declared President, and whoever came in second would become their VP. Due to the tie, the decision fell into the hands the House of Representatives, who would then vote as states. Ironically, thanks to the previous administrations, the House was filled with the Federalists, so neither Jefferson nor Burr was the Congressmen’s first choice. It therefore took numerous (35 to be exact) votes to finally achieve a majority and elect the new “Mr. President.”

During the interim between the general election and the deciding vote by the House, Hanover community leaders Bezaleel Woodward (Dartmouth College Treasurer) and John Wheelock (Dartmouth College President) further sported the Federalist spirit of New England in letters to their New Hampshire Congressman, Jonathan Freeman; however, they also appealed to their representative to support Jefferson. On January 23, 1801 Woodward wrote to Freeman calling the defeat of Adams “mortifying,” yet he also proposed that “we may perhaps have some reason to hope what has been said & written will induce Mr. Jefferson to consult the true interests of the U.S.” Similarly on February 14, 1801 Wheelock described how “The good old friends to the government in this quarter, and you know their number is great & precious, retain their firmness for the constitution & order,” echoing, although in a more mild manner, Burleigh’s description of a state under Federalist control. However, unlike Burleigh, Wheelock did not believe a Jeffersonian administration would declare war on the Constitution. Instead he calls the document “an anchor ground for the ship of storm,” believing that the Constitution would maintain the principles of the Republic. He endorsed Jefferson, claiming that “whatever his religious principles may be, he will have the strongest motives of interest, and honor, & true policy, to be attached to the constitution & the general good, and to avoid the insulation of party.”

Their voices were heard, and the House bestowed the title of President of the United States upon the supposed atheist and Constitution-hater, Mr. Jefferson. Timing, timing, timing. Oh how the Federalists’ opinion, right in Hanover, changed with the circumstances. Although it is unclear how Wheelock and Woodward viewed Jefferson prior to Adams’s defeat or how Burleigh or Davis’s general readers saw him after, beyond displaying the regional political affiliations, their words reveal the power of the tediously printed press and elegantly styled ink for politics in the early Republic.

To see the newspaper article or letters, ask for:

Dartmouth Gazette (LH1.D3 D255, V1), Mss 801164 Wheelock to Freeman and Mss 801123.1 B. Woodward to Freeman.

Posted for Haley Shaw ’15

Dartmouth College Library Digital Program: Digitization for Access and Preservation

Visit the Digital Production Unit at Baker Library to learn how the Library’s Digital Program provides access and preservation to the Library’s collections.  An open house showcasing conservation, digitization, and digital preservation will be held on Monday, April 28, from 11 am  until 1 pm in Baker Library, Room 2 (east end of the Orozco Cooridor).  This event is part of a nation wide celebration of the American Library Association’s observance of Preservation Week.

UpToDate Enhancements Coming

UpToDate banner UpToDate® introduces enhanced search results and an improved user interface Find answers faster than ever with links to the sections and graphics most likely to answer your clinical questions. UpToDate synthesizes data from over 21 million monthly topic views to analyze search terms and information viewed by clinicians. This analysis enables UpToDate to quickly and accurately display relevant sections and graphics for a given search. Navigating UpToDate is even more intuitive with a redesigned user interface that puts key features like Drug Interactions and Practice Changing UpDates on every page.

Enhancements that improve search and usability include:

  • Links to the sections and graphics within a topic that are most likely to answer your clinical question
  • Customizability allows you to collapse the search results to see more results per page; this setting will be saved if you are logged in
  • The topic outline continues to provide a comprehensive overview of all topic sections and graphics
  • Find in Topic now displays your search term immediately upon opening
  • Improved user interface facilitates navigation by grouping items together in sections in the header and footer

enhancement examples

Learn more about the enhanced search results and updated user interface:
Watch a brief video demonstrating the changes or view a full description.