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Recently some members of CART (the library's Collections Action and Response Team) visited the college's Records Management facility. Members of CART have basic training and knowledge in disaster recovery and preparedness, and participate in disaster p...

Recently some members of CART (the library's Collections Action and Response Team) visited the college's Records Management facility. Members of CART have basic training and knowledge in disaster recovery and preparedness, and participate in disaster planning for all library spaces and library storage areas. The group included Preservation Services staff and interns along with CART members from 2 satellite libraries. Our goals for this visit included discussion with Records Management staff to familiarize CART members with the high density storage facility, evaluate the current disaster plan and available resources, brainstorm to anticipate special needs in the event of a disaster, and compile a list of recommended information and items to have on site.

Upon arriving on location and having a brief introduction in the Records Management office, a member of Records Management staff gave a tour of the facility including a walk through the storage shelving, loading areas, and staff offices. Following our tour, we gathered for a group question and discussion session. CART members had many questions which spurred thoughtful discussion. As a result we identified and located items at Records Management that could be useful in a recovery effort, as well as generated a list of additional items to have on hand. Throughout the visit our Recorder kept careful notes, in particular the questions that couldn't be easily answered.

Some things to think about when creating a disaster plan are:

  • Who should be notified, and in what order?
  • Are there any security concerns? Do the people with security clearance have disaster recovery training?
  • Is all necessary information, records, catalogs, and building diagrams available at the site as well as off site?
  • Are high priority items labeled and easy to remove from site?
  • Is the disaster recovery team trained and prepared to deal with all varieties of material?
  • Are materials protected from automated systems on premises including sprinkler systems?
  • Are all exits visible, labeled, and accessible? Are fire extinguishers visible and inspected?
  • Always prioritize safety first.

For more information on disaster preparedness for libraries and archives, check out the American Library Association's Disaster Response Library Fact Sheet.

Written by Elizabeth Rideout.

Each year Preservation Services hires students to help further the work of our department. Student workers across campus provide a valuable service to the library and college in the work they do. Here in Preservation we hire both end processing student...

Each year Preservation Services hires students to help further the work of our department. Student workers across campus provide a valuable service to the library and college in the work they do. Here in Preservation we hire both end processing students who prepare our general collections for the shelves, and conservation students who do treatments on both new materials and items we already own. In my years in the conservation lab we have had a great group of student workers - some remain with us for all their terms on campus and others for a shorter period of time. Some have gone off into the world after graduation with plans for specific careers in a variety of fields, while others have the idea of exploring possibilities for work or a job they couldn't yet imagine.

This spring another of our student workers, Sanja Miklin, headed off into the larger world of possibilities, after she graduated in June.

In the fall of 2011, Sanja joined us in the conservation lab and worked for two terms, plus some interim periods as well. In the previous years Sanja attended a number of Book Arts Program workshops, and she displayed an enthusiasm and aptitude for working with the tools and techniques of bookbinding. Eventually she applied for work and was hired to join our team.

During her short time here Sanja worked at a variety of tasks including rebacking books (repairing books by attaching new spines). However, she was instrumental (no pun intended) in our completion of a large music score rehousing project. This long-term project consisted mostly of pamphlets needing new sewing. Despite the repetitive nature of the repairs to this group of material, Sanja came to the work each day ready to do the work needed and sought to employ methods of batch processing to efficiently move the material out of the lab. As we wrapped up this long project, it seemed somehow fitting that both Sanja's graduation and the end of this long project happened in the same month.

Last week, Sanja stopped back into the lab to complete one final bookbinding project before leaving for home. She brought in her thesis to bind; something she had spoken of doing earlier in the year during those slow months of research and writing. She needed very little help from us, just the space and tools. Since she was binding one book, she made a second smaller blank book at the same time; batch processing in action! What a wonderful thing for her to have a bound copy of her thesis, the tangible accomplishment of her long hard work in book form. And how nice to see the skills we taught her put into practice for housing her own writing. As it is with all our students, we hope she will continue to find use and value for the skills she learned here in Preservation, whether for her own projects or in her work for others.

Written by Stephanie Wolff.

A few weeks ago, the Preservation Services team used one of our regular department meetings to play a board game. Yes, that's right...we played a board game at work! But lest you think we're just a bunch of slackers, let me assure you that this particu...

A few weeks ago, the Preservation Services team used one of our regular department meetings to play a board game. Yes, that's right...we played a board game at work! But lest you think we're just a bunch of slackers, let me assure you that this particular game was special, and highly relevant to our jobs. The game we played was Curate: The Digital Curator Game.

This game was created by Digital Curator Vocational Education Europe, or DigCurV for short. The game is designed to help people learn about and discuss the challenges and strategies involved in digital curation, while also having a lot of fun! It includes plenty of pertinent questions exploring issues such as staffing, funding, collaboration, and training.

The "game" part of the game is really just a ruse...a way to get people interested in having the digital curation discussion, and it worked. We all got really into it, and had a lively conversation. Some of the topics that we found especially useful were: project and workflow planning, skills needed for staff involved in curation, and listing external resources for gathering more information about digital curation.

The game is free to download from DigCurv, they just require you to register as a network member. Part of the game includes recording discussion points on a record sheet, and DigCurV’s only request is that anyone who plays the game submit these sheets anonymously, to help them better understand how the game is used and whether it’s helpful. It was definitely helpful for us, and we thank DigCurV for providing such an excellent resource for sharing and learning about digital curation!

Written by Helen Bailey.

In 2007, Preservation Services established a rapport with what was then the conservation program at the University of Texas Kilgarlin Center for Study of the Cultural Record, by serving as an internship host site. These 9-month internships were designe...

In 2007, Preservation Services established a rapport with what was then the conservation program at the University of Texas Kilgarlin Center for Study of the Cultural Record, by serving as an internship host site. These 9-month internships were designed to provide advanced conservation experience to third-year students in the program. In August of that year we were fortunate to host our first intern, Lauren Telepak. Hosting a student such as Lauren was a pleasure, as she had much to share from her studies and workshops. In exchange, we provided a working environment in which she could tangibly integrate her skills and knowledge. One of the activities Lauren participated in was the extensive staff orientation that is provided for new library staff. Lauren was exposed to many operations and departments she might not otherwise have known about. One of the many benefits of hosting interns, especially those from established programs, is the opportunity for us to learn new techniques and skills that are being taught in the programs.

Lauren showing re-moistenable tissue

Often conservation interns do not have any training or supervising experience, so we try to provide opportunities for the interns to work with our part-time students. Lauren was also able to teach in the Book Arts Workshop, which gave her some classroom teaching experience. Lauren is now the Collections Conservator for the Harvard College Library.

Lauren training a student to do circulating collections repair

Our second intern from the Texas program was Helen Bailey. Helen had a strong background in digital technology along with her interest in conservation. One of the options I like to offer our interns is the chance to explore new venues and potential interests other than just conservation. During Helen's time here, she took advantage of this opportunity by shadowing some of the librarians in other departments and spending some time on the reference desk. She also taught workshops for the Book Arts program and was the project coordinator for the redesign of our department web site. By the end of her internship, we had reorganized our department staff, which resulted in a new position that incorporated conservation knowledge and digital preservation development. I am pleased to say that Helen is still with us in this new position!

Helen Bailey

Summer Internships:

In 2008, while attending a party marking the closing of Aikos Japanese paper store in Chicago, Becky Saki, who had been the store manager there for five years and worked there for over fifteen years, came to me and said "Now what am I going to do?" I knew Becky had taken some conservation classes and that she was interested in learning more, so I said "Well maybe you can come up to Dartmouth for the summer and do a crash course in conservation," and with that, the kick-off for our summer internship program was established.

With a much shorter time frame to learn, it is more of a challenge to be diligent and structured in setting the outline for skills to learn. Becky was a quick study and was soon exploring more complex treatment beyond basic book repair. After Becky returned to Chicago, she was hired for a part time job at the Newberry Library working on a long term grant project and a part time position at the Ryerson Library at the Art Institute of Chicago, where she utilized many of the skills learned here. She has gone on to learn fine binding skills with Scott Kellar and had a book juried into the Chicago Public Library "One Book Many Interpretations" exhibit.

Becky Saki

The next summer we hosted Jill Iacchei who came to us with more of a book arts interest (unfortunately I don't have a photo of Jill). Jill had learned bookbinding more or less on her own, but had also sought out private lessons with Daniel Kelm in East Hampton MA. She was a Montessori teacher and wanted to change her career path. Having excellent listening skills and an eye for detail, she quickly picked up many of the conservation skills that were new to her. Pursuing her book arts interest, she applied and was accepted to the Iowa Book Arts Program. During this time she worked part-time in the conservation lab there. The Book Arts Program gives students a well-rounded education, from the history of book binding to the creation of fine books. This past year, she graduated and was hired for a one year fellowship in conservation at Stanford University.

In 2010 we entered into a relationship with North Bennet Street School to provide an official summer internship program for the book binding students.

Our first intern was McKey Berkman, who had a sound background of bookbinding experience. Students coming from North Bennet are exposed to traditional book binding as well as some conservation work. At the time she arrived, our College Archivist wanted to have some work done on the scrap book of Robert May, the creator of Ruldolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer. I thought this would make a perfect project for McKey that would provide a challenging and satisfying outcome. McKey has graduated and now has a studio space where she does private bookbinding and conservation work.

Mckey looking at the Robert May scrap book with College Archivist Peter Carini

Our second North Bennet intern, Arini Esarey, had already graduated when she came and had experience working in a conservation lab part-time as a student. While here, she was able to explore some of her more personal interests which included Islamic binding and color matching using different techniques. She went on to do an internship with London artist Su Blackwell and is now looking to spend time in Turkey researching book binding there.

Arini Esarey

Currently we are happy to host two interns at the same time, Lauren Schott, a first year student, and Becky Koch, a recent graduate.

Lauren Schott

Becky Koch

It has been a pleasure having two students here at the same time, as they are able to share what they have learned with each other. It also contributes to good conversation and group problem solving, and I am able to teach two people at once which makes my time more efficient. On a day-to-day basis I try to work with them individually as well as together, and have set up "touch base" meetings separately to be able to address their individual interests and focuses.

All in all, I find it a great and satisfying activity to host interns. It is an all-around win-win dynamic as we are able to complete a significant amount of work and move ahead on special projects and batch treatments. In return, the interns are exposed to a practical, working conservation environment and become more versed in conservation treatment options. I try to give each intern a special project so that they have at least one new show piece for their portfolio. We also provide a context in which conservation and preservation exists within the library and college environment, and help the interns learn more about this by setting up meetings with heads of departments, the Dean of Libraries, and an in depth tour of special collections. It also is very fulfilling to see how each of our interns finds their own individual way into the field either in preservation, book arts or both.

Written by Deborah Howe.

Film assessment station As Helen Bailey's excellent post described, the Preservation Services Department has taken a large selection of the college’s film archive to assess for damages. Of the three types of film stock (Cellulose Nitrate, Cellulose A...
Film assessment station

As Helen Bailey's excellent post described, the Preservation Services Department has taken a large selection of the college’s film archive to assess for damages. Of the three types of film stock (Cellulose Nitrate, Cellulose Acetate, a.k.a. "Safety" film, and Polyester, in chronological order) we are generally working with Acetate. Any remaining Nitrate films in the collection should have been dealt with already, as they are serious fire hazards, especially when stored improperly. For an example of just how serious the hazard is, check out this video of Rayle Archive and Screening Room doing a test burn of nitrate film (and please do not try this at home!)

After confirming that we are working with Acetate film stock, the next thing to be done is measure the Acetate decay. This is the vinegar odor Helen described in the previous post. We do this using AD strips, which produce a color coded result. The result ranges from 1 to 3, with anything above 2 being measured as “extreme Acetate decay.” While extreme decay cannot be reversed, it can be slowed by improving storage conditions.

AD strip and indicator

The next measurement to take is shrinkage. This, too, is a symptom of Acetate decay, but it can also be caused by excessively dry storage conditions. This is done using a shrinkage gauge. Any shrinkage higher than .08% requires a laboratory to copy the film, otherwise it may be permanently damaged during projection. Shrinkage past 2% will be nearly impossible to fix even in the most advanced film labs.

Shrinkage gauge

Next comes the fun part. The film is placed in a manually-operated rewind bench. A viewing glass is used and a lightbox is placed underneath to better view the film. Then we wind the film through once onto a separate film core, examining all the splices with the viewing glass and feeling for damage around the edges.

Lightbox and viewing glass

Here we are looking for any kind of visible damage. This can range from mold on the film itself to poorly done or degraded splices. Another common problem is broken sprockets, which can easily cause problems down the line when trying to project these films.

Example of undamaged film splice

All the various damages are then catalogued in a spreadsheet. At this point the film has to be rewound onto a new film core. Improper winding can cause damage to the film during storage, so with a manual rewind like this it can take several tries to get it right. It’s important to wind evenly, guiding the film onto the core in a consistent way. If the film is wound haphazardly for storage there will be pressure on different areas of the stock, causing warping and damage.

Severely warped film

From here, we should have a clear idea of exactly how damaged the film is. As we make progress through the current selection of football reels we will be figuring out storage and repair solutions to best preserve Dartmouth's films.

More work to be done!

Written by Ryland Ianelli.

Beginning in 2012, the Library's Digital Production Unit (DPU) formally became part of Preservation Services. This change is one of many recommended by the Dartmouth Digital Library Program Plan; for other recommendations or to see a broad overview of ...

Beginning in 2012, the Library's Digital Production Unit (DPU) formally became part of Preservation Services. This change is one of many recommended by the Dartmouth Digital Library Program Plan; for other recommendations or to see a broad overview of the digital project process, consult the full report.

The DPU is located in Baker Room 02, off of the Reserve Corridor. If you are a library staff member and have an idea for a digitization project, please talk to any member of DPIG or fill out a web form for review by that committee.

To see all the completed digital collections, visit the Dartmouth Digital Library Initiatives web page; or learn about our special partnership with NewsBank and the conservation and digitization of the U.S. Congressional Serial Set.

Written by Barb Sagraves.

This spring I had the good fortune to participate in a North Bennet Street School workshop in Boston on scaleboard bindings taught by Julia Miller, as well as attend the accompanying lecture, co-sponsored by North Bennet and the New England Chapter of ...

This spring I had the good fortune to participate in a North Bennet Street School workshop in Boston on scaleboard bindings taught by Julia Miller, as well as attend the accompanying lecture, co-sponsored by North Bennet and the New England Chapter of the Guild of Book Workers.

Julia Miller’s book, Books Will Speak Plain: A Handbook for Identifying and Describing Historical Bindings (The Legacy Press, 2010) covered her research on historic bookbindings, including scaleboard. She is currently working on a typology of scaleboard bindings, collecting evidence on its technique and use through her examination of hundreds of these volumes.

Scaleboard is very thin wood, used as boards in the bindings of smaller books particularly in America from about the late 17th to early 19th century. Sometimes these texts were sewn onto supports, and other times the pages were stabbed together. In Julia’s research, the supports were most often tawed skin, with a leather thong or cloth tape also used in some volumes. She found a few occasions where both sewing and stabbing occurred in a single volume, however as this was unusual she believes it to be the result of a repair, rather than original binding work. Notching of the spine (in preparation for sewing) was widely noted in the volumes even when books were stabbed, indicating books were likely prepped for sewing prior to a final decision on the binding method. Covering material pasted over the boards could be paper, or leather, or a combination of the two, in quarter-style for example. Blue or marbled paper was common. In the books examined by Julia, those in the earlier period (1680s through 1740s) were all in full leather, usually sheepskin, though sometimes goatskin.[1]

In the workshop we constructed two models: a stabbed quarter leather model (left) and a full leather cover sewn on tawed cords (right).

On each of my models I left half of a board pastedown unattached, to be able to view the construction and materials.

The full leather model was sewn on tawed thongs, which on the front were then brought to the cover and pasted down. The notches are visible here, particularly at the head.

On the back of the full leather model, a piece of paper waste was used as a board liner and the boards were laced in.

On the quarter leather model, the stabbed binding is visible in the joint. The restriction in opening is in relation to where the stabs have been positioned on the sections. The closer the stabs are to the spine folds of the sections, the greater the ease in opening the book.

Besides the construction of models, a hands-on exercise on identification, and an examination of numerous examples of scaleboard bindings, our workshop group also discussed conservation issues surrounding these books. Since there were a number of conservators, helpful suggestions were put forward. In some collections conservators are boxing these books, making very minimal repairs (the consolidation of torn papers or stabilization of broken or weak hinges for example) if any, in order to retain as much of the original binding as possible.

One approach to repairing a loose or broken board, shared by both Julia and by Irina Gorstein, and attributed to Pam Spitzmueller, was to use Ramieband as a support and attachment. Weaving this very thin tape through the stabbed slits and then pasting them onto the interior of the boards can reattach a broken board or strengthen a weak joint. This interested me greatly, as I had a book back at the lab with this problem!

Our volume (pictured from the front).

The title page reads:

AMERICAN COOKERY: OR, THE ART OF DRESSING VIANDS, FISH, POULTRY, AND VEGETABLES. AND THE BEST MODE OF MAKING PUFF PASTES, PIES, TARTS, PUDDINGS, CUSTARDS AND PRESERVES. AND ALL KINDS OF CAKES, FROM TRE IMPERIAL PLUMB TO PLAIN CAKE. Adapted to this country and all grades of life. BY AN AMERICAN ORPHAN, Walpole, NH, Printed for Elijah Brooks, 1812.

(Amelia Simmons is the “American Orphan” according to the cataloging information.)

This small volume’s back board was completely off, as pictured here.

The front board was hanging on by the upper thong only. This book was bound with full marbled paper over scaleboards and two leather thongs attaching the text together. Whether there is any sewing in addition to the stabbed thongs is unclear from my examination. It looks like there is a notch on the spine toward the head of the volume, which may indicate a kettle stitch, but I can’t be sure. I learned that often the texts were notched regardless if these holes were used for sewing.

Gently probing with my tiny Casselli knife, I discovered the stabbed slits were open all the way through the text block and boards. This meant I could weave Ramieband through them to stabilize the covers.

Here is the lower stabbing on the front of the book where I have inserted a piece of Ramieband. The top tape piece will be moved under the board (where there is a break) to the inside of the cover.

After inserting the new tapes, I trimmed and splayed out the ends, attaching them with paste to the inside of the boards. On the front board, I could insert the ends under a loose pastedown. On the back, the pastedown was well secured to the board, so I chose to attach the new tape directly on top of the pastedown. While the repair is visible there, it blends in somewhat, and I didn’t risk causing any new damage.

The interior of the back board after attachment.

Now both boards function as they should, in addition to protecting the textblock. This treatment repaired the board attachment and added strength, while what existed of the original binding remains. The exterior looks just as it did before treatment, except the boards are now secured.

It’s very satisfying to put into practice a new technique immediately after being introduced to it. I suspect more scaleboard bindings will some day make their way through the conservation lab here, due to the history of the binding and the makeup of our collections. When they do, we’ll be ready!

[1] This section is based on workshop notes and an e-mail from Julia Miller in May of 2012. I am grateful for her work on scaleboard bindings, and thank her for sharing that research and clarifying my understanding.

Written by Stephanie Wolff.

I recently had the pleasure of working with a colleague from Amherst College to organize a regional forum on "Planning and Building a Digital Collections Program". Kelcy Shepherd and I organized this event through the NorthEast Regional Computing Prog...

I recently had the pleasure of working with a colleague from Amherst College to organize a regional forum on "Planning and Building a Digital Collections Program". Kelcy Shepherd and I organized this event through the NorthEast Regional Computing Program, better known as NERCOMP. Our goal was to bring together speakers on a variety of topics related to creating digital collections in a library or archive setting. The forum included four presenters:

  • Dartmouth College Library's own David Seaman, Associate Librarian for Information Management, who spoke about our Digital Library Program Plan and the process we’ve gone through to develop our digital collections infrastructure over the past several years.
  • David Mathews, Partner at The Image Collective, who gave a detailed presentation on the important technical considerations for digital imaging.
  • Nancy McGovern, Head of Curation and Preservation Services at MIT Libraries, who covered the basic components of digital preservation planning. This talk was a very abbreviated version of the ICPSR's five-day Digital Preservation Management Workshop, which builds on the Digital Preservation Management Tutorial found here.
  • Anne Sauer, Director and University Archivist at Tufts University, who talked about the challenges and strategies involved in advocating for digital collections funding within a larger campus environment.

All of the presentations were excellent, and Kelcy and I had a great time organizing the event. The presenters' slides can be found here (some slides are not yet available, but will be soon). Many thanks to all the presenters and participants, and to NERCOMP for hosting the forum!

Written by Helen Bailey.

Like many conservators, tools interest me. They allow my hands to execute very specific actions in a more exacting fashion than they could alone. On the whole, a knife, for example, makes a cleaner cut than the tear made without one. A spatula lifts a ...

Like many conservators, tools interest me. They allow my hands to execute very specific actions in a more exacting fashion than they could alone. On the whole, a knife, for example, makes a cleaner cut than the tear made without one. A spatula lifts a thin piece of bookcloth with more accuracy than a fingernail. It’s valuable to keep in mind that occasionally to tear is the better action than to cut—sometimes speed beats accuracy or the feathered edge is more appropriate.

In my conservation work I use a fairly small selection of tools, only venturing outside this basic set when the repairs stray from the usual. My basic hand tools:

Pictured bottom row, left to right: staple remover, awl, microspatula, Casselli knife (larger), Caselli knife (smaller), scissors, bone folder, bone folder (smaller), Teflon folder, needle, tweezers, Olfa cutting knife, glue brush. Top row, left to right: weight, rubber cement pick-up (crepe eraser), and 45-degree right triangle. Not pictured: 12” and 18” rulers, large scissors.

Tools for cutting:

A small pair of scissors that cut all the way to the tip and a sharp, straight-bladed knife are both very useful tools. Sometimes you want a quick rough cut, and scissors are the perfect tool for the efficiency. Other times accurate cutting is essential, and a knife is the best option. Change the blade frequently, as a sharp blade is a safe one.

Tools for sewing:

A staple remover (top) can pry staples apart for removal without causing paper damage. A bookbinding needle, whose eye is no wider than the body of the needle, will allow tighter sewing since the hole the needle makes will not be larger than the needle’s thickness. (The needle size should be in harmony with the thread size.) The awl (bottom) has a shaft of equal width its entire length allowing for piercing holes of a consistent size.

Tools for lifting:

The Casselli #4 spatula (top) is my usual tool for lifting leather or paper when rebacking a book, and it can also be used for spine cleaning. The blade is very thin, as is the blade on the small Caselli #2 (3rd from top), which easily gets into very small spaces. The microspatula (2nd from top) has a thicker blade, but still allows for the insertion of glue or paste in small areas. The tweezers (bottom), with their fine, pointed tip, assist with positioning Japanese paper in repairs and removing excess cloth in corners when making boxes.

Recently, the blog of the Preservation Department at Parks Library of Iowa State University had a detailed post on microspatulas, including photos of them in action.

Tools for scoring, folding, and pressing:

My small Teflon folder (top) has two very useful ends: one pointed and one chiseled. Both ends of the tool allow tight adhesion of book cloth to board when making boxes, especially in the corners. The entire length can help secure a spine on a reback, and the Teflon material does not cause burnishing of the cloth or paper as bone folders can. My larger Teflon folder (not pictured) gets pulled out for larger projects. The two other folders are made of bone, with the middle folder’s blunt tip and wider body being useful for most work, and the lower folder helpful for smaller, more detailed work. The bottom folder’s tip broke some time ago, but a bit of sanding smoothed the rough bone with no detriment to its function. (A word of caution about sanding: Do not sand bone or Teflon without adequate health protection, as the dust can be harmful if inhaled.)

Tools for gluing, measuring, and stabilizing:

Much of the work I do requires applying glue or paste to small areas; hence the small sizes of my glue brush (top) and paste brush (bottom). Both have brush tips about 1/2-inch in width. For box-making or gluing up large areas of paper or cloth, I generally use a foam paint roller for application (not pictured). A small flat weight (a piece of steel covered with book cloth) holds work in place while sewing or drying. A rubber cement pick-up (also called a crepe eraser) will often get a stray bit of glue off of book cloth or paper. The small metal 45-degree right triangle is essential for box-making. It is also convenient for trimming small pieces of material on the bench, without requiring a walk to the board shear.

If tools interest you too, then you may wish to follow Jeff Peachey’s blog. He writes about tools, as well as makes and sells them.

Tools for bookbinding and conservation are available from a variety of vendors, including local hardware, craft, and stationary stores, as well as those businesses catering specifically to the conservation and binding fields. Additionally, the vendor room at the Guild of Book Workers Standards of Excellence Seminar each year provides a great opportunity to see a wide range of tools and supplies, and to support the vendors who keep the specialized items available to practitioners. The vendor room is open to all, not just conference attendees. A list of past vendors can be found on the Standards website. A list of supplies and services for bookbinding and conservation can be found here.

Written by Stephanie Wolff.